|Environment & Health||ISSN: 2077-7477 eISSN: 2077-7485
No: 1 (106) - MARCH, 2023 - Pages: 67-74
Sanitary and epidemiological evaluation of design solutions of modern systems for management of solid household waste
Kakura I.V.1, Stankevych V.V.1, Trakhtenherts G.A.1, Cherevko O.M.1, Koval N.M.1
1 State Institution "O.M. Marz³eiev Institute for Public Health of the NAMSU", Kyiv
Objective: sanitary and hygienic assessment of the project of a complex for processing and disposal of solid waste. In context, tasks of determining predictive indicators of environmental impact and establishing the hazard category of RDF fuel from sorted fractions of municipal solid waste with the possibility of its further use as an alternative fuel were solved.
Materials and methods. Objects - the designed parameters of the arrangement of the object for the treatment of solid waste, indicators of alternative fuel from combustible fractions of solid waste and the conditions for the further operation of the object. RDF fuel from MSW fractions was evaluated in terms of physicochemical and toxicological parameters with laboratory tests and calculation of hazard category. The assessment of operating conditions of facility was carried out by the method of hygienic analysis, taking into account the specifics of impact on the environment.
Results. A modern complex for the processing and disposal of solid waste as part of a waste sorting and landfill for the non-utilizable part of solid waste is planned to be located outside the boundaries of the settlement. Arrangement of the landfill is provided in accordance with construction and environmental standards. From combustible fractions of sorted waste, it is planned to produce RDF fuel. Studies have established the main indicators of fuel. According to results of acute toxicity assessment and calculated coefficients, the waste mixture in composition of RDF fuel belongs to the 4th category of waste and 4th class in terms of acute toxicity in accordance with the requirements of the EU Regulations. Combustion of this fuel in whirlpool kilns of cement plants is optimal solution, since safety conditions are observed in accordance with requirements of EU Directive for combustion at a temperature of at least 850 ◦C for a duration of at least 2 seconds. The sanitary and hygienic assessment of probabilistic impact of the object was made on the basis of predictive calculated indicators, which indicate the absence of excess impact and determine the 300 m area of its distribution, which is less than 500 m of the standard size of the sanitary protection zone.
Conclusions. It has been established that the planned sorting activities with the removal of recyclable materials and the disposal of non-utilizable part of MSW make it possible to further use the useful part of waste, reduce volume and area of disposal, and extend the life of landfill. Design solutions for arrangement of a modern complex for processing and disposal of solid waste, according to the predictive assessment, will not have an excess impact on the environment, will ensure environmental safety in the area of probable impact of the facility and comply with domestic and European standards. Production of RDF fuel to specifications and further use as an alternative fuel for whirlpool kilns in cement plants is in line with the Basel Convention, the Glasgow UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and will contribute to environmentally sound waste disposal in accordance with EU Directive 2010/75 /EU. Arrangement of a modern facility for the treatment of solid waste will create appropriate living conditions for the population and compliance with the sanitary and epidemiological safety of settlements’ territories of in service area.
Solid waste, polygon, sorting, alternative rdf fuel, acute toxicity, hazard category, exposure indicators
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